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Our Health Information Database is provided by A.D.A.M. the leading provider of electronic and printed information for professionals and consumers in healthcare and industry. It provides authoritative, reliable content written and reviewed by an editorial board who represent a variety of specialty areas. This board reviews and evaluates all healthcare information to ensure it is accurate, reliable, and can be used with complete confidence. And now you have access to the same authoritative, trusted clinical information relied upon by health professionals around the world.
Diabetes insipidus

Definition

Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to conserve water.

Alternative Names

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to conserve water as they perform their function of filtering blood. The amount of water conserved is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin.

ADH is a hormone produced in a region of the brain called the hypothalamus. It is then stored and released from the pituitary gland, a small gland at the base of the brain.

DI caused by a lack of ADH is called central diabetes insipidus. When DI is caused by a failure of the kidneys to respond to ADH, the condition is called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

Central diabetes insipidus can be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland as a result of:

  • Head injury
  • Infection
  • Surgery
  • Tumor

There is also a form of central diabetes insipidus that runs in families.

Nephrogenic DI involves a defect in the parts of the kidneys that reabsorb water back into the bloodstream. It occurs less often than central DI. Nephrogenic DI may occur as an inherited disorder in which male children receive the abnormal gene that causes the disease from their mothers.

Nephrogenic DI may also be caused by:

Symptoms

Signs and tests

Treatment

The cause of the underlying condition should be treated when possible.

Central diabetes insipidus may be controlled with vasopressin (desmopressin, DDAVP). You take vasopressin as either a nasal spray or tablets.

If nephrogenic DI is caused by medication (for example, lithium), stopping the medication may help restore normal kidney function. However, after many years of lithium use, the nephrogenic DI may be permanent.

Hereditary nephrogenic DI and lithium-induced nephrogenic DI are treated by drinking enough fluids to match urine output and with drugs that lower urine output. Drugs used to treat nephrogenic DI include:

  • Anti-inflammatory medication (indomethacin)
  • Diuretics [hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and amiloride]

Support Groups

Expectations (prognosis)

The outcome depends on the underlying disorder. If treated, diabetes insipidus does not cause severe problems or reduce life expectancy.

Complications

If thirst mechanisms are normal and you drink enough fluids, there are no significant effects on body fluid or salt balance.

Not drinking enough fluids can lead to the following complications:

Calling your health care provider

Call your health care provider if you develop symptoms of diabetes insipidus.

If you have diabetes insipidus, contact your health care provider if frequent urination or extreme thirst return.

Prevention

References

Goldman L, Ausiello D. Goldman: Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier;2007:chap 241, 242.
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    Review Date: 3/5/2010

    Review By: A.D.A.M. Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz. Previously reviewed by Parul Patel, MD, Private Practice specializing in Nephrology and Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, Affiliated with California Pacific Medical Center, Department of Transplantation, San Francisco, CA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network (10/14/2009).

    The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2010 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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