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Anemia megaloblástica

Definición

Es un trastorno sanguíneo en el cual se presenta anemia con glóbulos rojos que son más grandes de lo normal.

La anemia es una afección en la cual el cuerpo no tiene suficientes glóbulos rojos saludables. Los glóbulos rojos le suministran oxígeno a los tejidos corporales.

Nombres alternativos

Causas, incidencia y factores de riesgo

La anemia megaloblástica generalmente es causada por deficiencia de ácido fólico o de vitamina B12.

Otras causas menos comunes son:

Los factores de riesgo están relacionados con las causas.

Ver también:

Síntomas

Ver:

Signos y exámenes

Para información sobre los exámenes, ver:

Tratamiento

El primer objetivo es diagnosticar la causa de la anemia, de la cual depende el tratamiento. Las anemias relacionadas con deficiencias vitamínicas específicas se abordan por separado.

Ver:

Grupos de apoyo

Expectativas (pronóstico)

Complicaciones

Situaciones que requieren asistencia médica

Prevención

Referencias

Antony AC. Megoblastic anemias. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Shattil SS, et al., eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 39.

Kaferie J, Strzoda CE. Evaluation of macrocytosis. Am Fam Physician. 2009;79:203-208.

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    Review Date: 1/31/2010

    Review By: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

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